One of the ethical concerns in modern medicine is whether new technology developed out of a desire to help people may cause more harm than good. Most of the time we think about this in relation to therapeutic technology, but it may also be true of diagnostic technology. It is usually good to be able to diagnose diseases more accurately but learning about a diagnosis can cause significant stress and anxiety. When that is not balanced by significant benefit to the person learning the diagnosis, diagnostic information can cause more harm than good.
I think we are currently experiencing this type of harm from new diagnostic technology in the current outbreak of Covid-19, and it may be a while before we know whether our ability to diagnose this new virus has actually resulted in more benefit than harm. Prior to the development of rapid viral DNA testing this new virus would not have been recognized early in the course of its spread. 3000 or 4000 additional deaths from viral pneumonia in China where there are 100,000 deaths from influenza annually might not have been noticed at all. However, there might have been more deaths if the relatively extreme limitations on movement had not been up imposed on the Chinese people in the region where the outbreak began. There has undoubtedly been benefit from being able to identify those who are infected with this new virus and isolating them to help prevent increased spread of the virus. However, knowing that this new virus exists has led to significant fear and panic. Some of the response has undoubtedly been excessive, and those excesses can cause harm. Locking down the entire nation of Italy, restrictions on travel that may be more than what is necessary, and the closing of workplaces does more than just impact the stock market. People are impacted by an overreaction to this new disease. Those of us who are more affluent have enough margin to get by, but there are those who live week-to-week and even day-to-day may be severely impacted by things that are being done more due to fear and panic than well-established public health strategies.
There are hopeful signs that the number of deaths in China from Covid-19 are rapidly decreasing, and if the impact in the rest of the world is no worse than what it has been in China, the deaths from this virus worldwide will be about 3 or 4% of the number of deaths from influenza each year. That is significantly less than the normal fluctuation in influenza deaths from year to year. It is not good that those people have died, but it is not the end of the world. The ability given to us by DNA technology to identify this virus will have helped through proven public health measures to decrease the impact of the disease, but will the overreactions due to fear and panic cause as much or more harm than the virus? We may never know.