Yes. It’s certainly ethically problematic to insert beliefs into people, and so we want to be clear that’s not something we’re proposing. What we have in mind has more to do with weakness of will. For example, I might know that I ought to send a check to Oxfam, but because of a weakness of will I might never write that check. But if we increase my empathetic capacities with drugs, then maybe I might overcome my weakness of will and write that check. (1)
What Liao is talking about is something still closely tied to beliefs: the will. Jonathan Edwards spent a good bit of his time writing about the close relationship between these two aspects of human character. If all that was needed was a little perk-me-up to help out a sleepy donor, then we would prescribe a cup of coffee. However, beliefs and the will are both components of human character and therefore are changed and molded by the process of maturation. And the maturing of a person takes place in relationship with other persons, in relationship to God and in relationship to other human beings. This is the heart and soul (literally) of the human experience. Theologians oftentimes use the term sanctification to describe this change within the person as a result of the action of God. This process is ultimately directed toward Jesus, the Mediator who opens the door for making the human heart living and the One who is the New Adam—the One who is human in the truest sense. Pharmacological manipulation of human behavior seeks to short-circuit the process of human development, thereby essentially taking away that which is truly human. Just think: if the literature describing the story of human struggle and development were eliminated, our libraries would be largely empty. A person no longer growing in relationship with God and with others would be less human. The manipulative means would have done great harm in pursuit of the end behavior.
The renewed interest in virtue ethics in recent years may serve to steer us away from further attempts at manipulation in favor of choosing a path of maturity.
I have always marveled at how Meda Pharmeceuticals markets their version of the muscle relaxant carisoprodol as Soma because of the name’s negative connotations. Maybe it has no negative connotations at all.
By this time the soma had begun to work. Eyes shone, cheeks were flushed, the inner light of universal benevolence broke out on every face in happy, friendly smiles. (2)