Many of our discussions in bioethics are about whether the things that are possible to do with advances in medical technology are things that we ought to do. However, some of the moral concerns in medicine are much more basic. They have to do with the idea that dates back at least to the Hippocratic oath that physicians should use their knowledge for the benefit of the people they treat. Patients should not be used by physicians in ways that are harmful to the patient in order to increase physicians’ income.
Medscape recently reported on a study presented at the American Society for Reproductive Medicine 2019 Scientific Congress which looked at how well fertility clinics across the US complied with the Society’s online advertising policy. They found that many clinics were not following the policy. The major concern was that there were a significant number of clinics that were advertising success rates without revealing the additional information needed to make that rate meaningful. The most serious concerns had to do with clinics that advertised high success rates without revealing that they also had higher than recommended rates of transferring more than one embryo per cycle and had significantly higher than expected rates of twin pregnancies. It is well known that twin pregnancies have a higher risk of complications for both the mother and the babies. Transferring more than one embryo increases the chance of achieving pregnancy and live birth with a cycle of IVF but also increases the likelihood of twin or other multiple gestation pregnancies and the risk to the mother and babies. By transferring more than one embryo in situations in which it is not generally considered justified, these clinics are increasing the success rate that they advertise to obtain patients by doing something which causes harm to their patients.
When the physicians at a fertility clinic prioritize their income above doing what is best for the people they are treating, they have gone beyond unethical business practices. They have abandoned one of the main things that makes the practice of medicine a moral profession.