Controlling gene editing

The title does not mean societal or legal control of gene editing technology.  Rather, it speaks of controlling, or shutting off, a specific gene editing process.  In retrospect, it had to be the case that there is a resistance, or control, mechanism for the CRISPR system, the gene-editing machinery that functions as a way for bacteria to resist invasion by viruses.  An engaging essay in Nature this week discusses this on a level accessible to one who, like me, is not a technical specialist in the field.  Briefly, a few years ago a grad student at UC/San Francisco discovered cases in which the CRISPR system was ineffective in certain bacteria.  Following up led to the discovery of some 50 proteins that can act as “kill switches” for CRISPR.

On a surface level, the implications are clear—learn how to deploy these proteins and one can monitor one’s gene editing efforts for unwanted effects, or for spinning out of control, and if things haven’t gotten too far out of hand, one could turn things off—have an antidote, as it were.

Suppose at some future date that someone were being treated with a gene editing approach for a genetic disease, and things start happening suggesting that other genes than were intended to be the target were being altered.  Presumably one could intervene to treat or prevent the consequences.  Or suppose that genes were being edited to control a certain pest, like malaria-causing mosquitoes.  Presumably there could be an intervention to try to stop the process.

That’s a pretty superficial discussion, but technical experts in the field are trying to learn how to use these “kill switches” to control their gene-editing efforts. 

The also-superficial implication seems clear: these efforts should be understood, and applied in laboratory systems, then perhaps in “somatic” gene editing (treating an existing person for a genetic disease) BEFORE attempts are made to edit human embryos, whether the embryos are intended for gestation or birth or not.  Until things are MUCH more fully understood, there should be no direct work on heritable genome editing.

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