By Steve Phillips
Last week I wrote about one of my moral concerns regarding Norman Cantor’s proposal to avoid advanced dementia, which he views as being intolerably degrading, by using an advance directive stating that when he reached a certain level of dementia he no longer wanted to eat or drink so that his death would result. My concern with this was that the person caring for him would have to concur with him that his life at that time was no longer worth living in order to justify following his directive and cease to feed him and give him fluids to drink. An independent assessment that another person’s life is not worth living is required of any physician or other caregiver who participates in euthanasia or assisted suicide. Such a determination that another person’s life is not worth living is something that we should never do and the need for that determination is a fundamental reason why euthanasia is not permissible.
Dena Davis in her article “Avoiding Dementia, Causing Moral Distress” agrees with Cantor that a person ought to be able to use an advance directive to end his own life to avoid advanced dementia, but sees a flaw in Cantor’s plan. She writes, “As long as the demented person is enjoying her diminished life, it will be psychologically and emotionally difficult, perhaps impossible, for most people to withhold food or even simple medical interventions. Even if they believe they ought to comply with the advance directive, the moral distress is simply too great.” She concludes that since a person cannot rely on others to follow an advance directive like Cantor’s, the only way to avoid advanced dementia is preemptive suicide. The article “A Debate over ‘Rational Suicide’” in the New York Times describes 80-year-old Robert Shoots doing just that.
My second concern is that it is wrong for us to choose to end our own life by rational suicide even if no one else participates in that act. Autonomy and personal liberty are important, but there are some things that can be wrong to do even to ourselves. This is easier to see from a Christian perspective. Christians understand that our lives belong to God and we do not have the authority to end our lives. That authority belongs to God alone. We have been commanded not to kill any innocent human being because we have all been made in the image of God. That includes a command not to end our own lives.
It can be harder for someone who does not understand that his life belongs to God and has value because he has been made in God’s image to see why rational suicide would be wrong. However, all of us are relational beings. We are connected to our families and the rest of humanity. What we do to ourselves impacts others. Those who contemplate rational suicide to avoid things such as advanced dementia forget how their deaths impact others. They have a desire to avoid a part of life they do not want to live and may want to relieve those who love them from the burden of caring for them but caring for those we love when they become dependent is an opportunity for us to be more fully human. Caring for a loved one with dementia is very hard but is one of the ultimate expressions of human love. We should not take that away from those who love us.