The Bioethics of a Modern Death Mask

By the time you read this, a company called Nectome will have pitched its business plan to investors at Y Combinator as a company who has designed a technology called Aldehyde-Stabilized Cryopreservation to preserve all of your connectome, which is all of your brain’s interconnected synapses. Doing this, they argue, can preserve your memories, allowing the company to effectively “upload your mind”. One problem with the technology is that the process is 100% fatal as you have to die during the cryopreservation process to make an accurate connectome.

Oddly, the fact that you have to die for the process to be successful is not considered a deal breaker. Twenty-five individuals have already plunked down the $10,000 deposit to be first on the list to eventually have their brains perfectly preserved in this manner. The process also depends upon future scientists being able to figure out a way to use these perfectly embalmed brains to “reboot” their consciousness. Never mind that no one presently knows how that rebooting process might work or whether the present process captures everything that will be necessary some 100 years in the future when the complete technology will hopefully actually exist. Presumably, smarter people will have all of that detail eventually worked out. What is important at present, particularly if you have a terminal disease, is to preserve your brain so you can be rebooted in the future. A new state law in California called the “End of Life Option Act” makes the application of this novel technology legal for terminal patients (at least as best as can be determined as the legal details have yet to be tested in court). A very nice overview of this new technology and the new company itself may be found in the latest Technology Review article by Antonio Regalado.

There are scientists, such as neuroscientist Ken Hayworth, president of the Brain Preservation Foundation, who believe that a connectome map could provide the basis for reconstituting a person’s consciousness. At its base, this theory assumes that the physical brain is not only the necessary but presumably the sufficient source of consciousness. Capturing the synapse pattern would certainly be essential for recreating the hardware (and perhaps the software) of the brain to restart one’s electrical pattern leading presumably to rebooting one’s consciousness.

I have a couple of ethical problems with this technology, though I am sure there are more. The most obvious is that the process hastens the death of the individual, regardless of their terminal illness. The person will not be dying from their illness but from the cryopreservation process. This technology would not be legally possible without the new California law that will ascribe the death to the terminal illness rather than Nectome’s cryopreservation process, presumably shielding Nectome from product liability suits. Only in California could a terminal patient’s family sue the manufacturer of their vehicle for a malfunction in the brakes that resulted in their loved one’s premature death as they were in the process of driving their loved one to a Nectome facility to die by brain cryopreservation with the hope that the loved one could live again.

Another ethical problem is the transhumanist lure of a brain being rebooted, effectively allowing immortality of one’s consciousness. Aside from the presently unproven science of the rebooting process, who would be the recipient of the successful rebooted consciousness? By that I mean “who” (or what) is regaining consciousness? If the physical brain is the basis for consciousness, and recreating a new but exactly reproduced connectome is the thing that becomes conscious, would it really be you becoming conscious, or someone or something else entirely? Who really enjoys the rebooted memories? What if it is not really you that is being rebooted but someone or something else with your life’s memories? This would be the worst “bait and switch” advertising scam ever devised! What till the FTC begins filling suit. But seriously, are we just our consciousness or a necessary combination of physical mind and body, or a necessary combination of spiritual soul and physical mind/body? What exactly are we? Why do we think we can achieve immortality in the first place? If we can, is the Nectome method the right way of going about this process?

The Christian faith argues for a different process, but uses language such as “dying to self” and being “born again”, which sound similar to Nectome but are indeed very different. Per Nectome, if you die, using our cryopreservation technology, you can live again by regaining your consciousness in the future. The biblical concepts of being born again and dying to self reflects a believer having faith in the salvation offered by Christ’s death on the cross and subsequently humbly subjecting oneself to God’s will rather than one’s own will for the future, both temporally on earth and eternally in heaven.

I recommend the Christian process of being born again rather than the modern death mask soon to be offered by Nectome.

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