[Star Wars fans spoiler alert: The following contains potential story information from “Rogue One: A Star Wars Story”, the Star Wars Episode IV prequel]
I confess that I am a Stars Wars geek in particular and a science fiction movie buff in general. Like many, I am old enough to have seen the first Star Wars movie at its 1977 release, before it was re-indexed as “Episode IV: A New Hope”. The computer generated imagery or CGI special effects in that movie revolutionized the science fiction genre. It is now commonplace to use CGI to accomplish all manner of special effects, transporting moviegoers into all sorts of fantastic virtual worlds and virtual characters that appear, frankly, real. Rogue One has taken CGI up to the next level with one particular character such that I would argue that Rogue One has passed what I am calling the CGI Turing Test.
The original Turing test was described by Alan Turing, a famous British mathematician who designed and built a mechanical computer in the 1940s that successfully decoded the Nazi Enigma machine, a previous unbreakable encoding device that had thwarted Allied efforts to eavesdrop on the Nazi military communications. The Turing test is commonly misconstrued as a test of a computer’s (artificial) intelligence, which it is not. It is actually a test to determine whether a computer can imitate a human well enough to convince an actual human that it (the computer) is human. This test was a variant of a party game known as the “Imitation Game” in which a man (person A) and a woman (person B) would try to convince a third party, called the interrogator (person C) who was in a separate room, that each was the other. The Turing test substitutes a computer for person A.
Rogue One plays a similar game. There is a character in the Star Wars films named Grand Moff Tarkin, a very evil general in the Empire played by British actor Peter Cushing. Cushing debuted his Grand Moff Tarkin character in the original 1977 Star Wars movie. He is again seen reprising this role in the new 2016 Rogue One installment. I thought he was as awesome as ever. Except that he wasn’t. Peter Cushing died 22 years ago in 1994. I promise if you watch Rogue One and put yourself in the role of person C, the interrogator, you will be convinced that the CGI Peter Cushing (person A) is the real Peter Cushing (person B). So, the Academy Award® for Best Actor in a supporting role goes to…a computer at Industrial Light & Magic?
What has this to do with bioethics in general or artificial intelligence in particular? Perhaps not much. The futurist Ray Kurzweil argued in his book “The Singularity is near” that a machine will pass the Turing test in 2029 and perhaps this will come true, though his previous predictions have been called into question. In keeping with this AI/Turing Test theme, I gave the gift of “Google Home” and “Alexa” to different family members this Christmas. I was pleasantly amazed by the speech recognition of both systems and fully expect the technology to rapidly improve. Despite this, the forgoing discussion, and the knowledge that Turing and Kurzweil both disagree with me, I remain convinced that our ability to create a computer to imitate a human, the Imago Hominis, so to speak, will always fall far short of His ability to create a human to reflect Himself, the Imago Dei.
As the interrogator, what do you think?