In my last post, “A Preview of Coming Attractions” (02-11-13), I signaled the start of a multi-part series of review essays covering three recently published books addressing ethical issues surrounding enhancement technologies and practices. I had intended to launch that series with today’s post. Before starting that series, however, I want to go on a brief discursus, one that will, I believe, turn out to be relevant to the themes to be touched on in the forthcoming series.
Last week, I attended the annual “Christ and Culture” lecture at California Baptist University in Riverside, California. This year’s speaker was Ralph Winter, producer of the first three X-Men films and numerous other successful film projects. Using such recent films as Les Miserables, Toy Story, Avatar, and others as illustrative examples, Winter set out, in the broadest sense, to show “how the gospel is often displayed in… contemporary film.” The unifying theme in all these stories is what Winter referred to as a “journey of transformation.” In each of these stories, the main character/hero grows through experiencing some form of adversity, learns something important about him or herself, and is transformed positively in some way.
One of Winter’s central concerns in his lecture was to explore the general question of how Christians engage with the broader culture, and particularly with how they communicate their messages to that culture. Here, Winter contends that “Christian stories often fail because we’re afraid of the journey,” by which he means that “our stories often hide from pain”—they avoid addressing the painful, the difficult, the ugly, the uncomfortable aspects of life—and place an emphasis on propositional assent over against an embrace of the “transformational journey” that is the life of faith. That is to say, there is a tendency to focus on the destination (heaven) to the exclusion of the journey that we take along the way.
What does all of this have to do with bioethics? There are at least two central lessons to be learned here.
First, in the context of genetic enhancement technologies and practices, it is worth asking the question: to what extent is the “enhancement enterprise” (broadly speaking, the attempt to “improve” human capacities by way of genetic or other interventions and/or technologies, as well as the cultural push toward embracing that agenda) in fact driven by a deep-seated, underlying “fear of the journey”—that is, a fear of those aspects of the aging process that are ugly, uncomfortable, painful, and so forth? Put more simply, to what extent is the drive toward “enhancement” really a flight from the inevitable realities of our lives as embodied creatures? (I do not propose to answer this question here; I pose it, however, as an important background issue to be kept in mind when considering specific arguments regarding the enhancement enterprise.)
Second, and more generally, our bioethical reflections—whether on beginning of life issues, end of life issues, or whatever—must always be attentive to the lived reality of embodied human existence. In particular, we must be willing to face the sometimes harsh realities of pain, suffering, indignity, and so forth, that can accompany the experience of various medical and other conditions. This is especially pertinent at the end of life, where the dying process can (but does not necessarily) involve significant levels of pain, discomfort, and distress. In a word, our bioethical reflections must tell “stories” that are true to the lived realities of human existence. If we are not willing to face these sometimes difficult realities, our pronouncements on bioethical issues are likely to seem shallow, insensitive, or even irrelevant.
This is not to say, of course, that our arguments and other reflections on bioethical issues should be overly-negative or fatalistic. Indeed, a focus on truth mandates that we tell “the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but.” This means being attentive to the fact (for example) that while the aging and dying processes can be characterized by pain, discomfort, and suffering, they are not always so characterized (indeed, with the skillful use of pain management techniques, they rarely need to be—but that is a different post altogether). The aging and dying processes can also be characterized by peace, joy, personal growth and development, and a sense of fulfillment. In a phrase: these processes can themselves be “journeys of transformation.” From the perspective of Christian theology, of course, the entire human lifespan can be understood in this way as well. The key point for present purposes is simply this: our bioethical reflections and arguments must attend to the potentially transformational aspects of the experience of pain, suffering, and the like, in addition to other considerations having to do with rights, obligations, principles, and so on.
Human life, in other words, is as much about the journey as it is about the destination. And that fact can make all the difference when it comes to bioethics.